Our People

Valerie Thomas, Lisbon Manages and represents the Regulatory Institute, coordinates freelancers, writes articles at www.howtoregulate.org and comments on draft regulations. She is the Executive Secretary of the Regulatory Institute ASBL, Brussels. She holds Degrees in Law (Honours) from the University of Canberra (Australia) and in Politics, Sociology and Philosophy from Murdoch University (Australia). Her Masters Degree in … Continue reading Our People

Report on Artificial Intelligence: Part II – outline of future regulation of AI

This Part II of the howtoregulate Report on Artificial Intelligence presents regulatory approaches for minimizing the harms of artificial intelligence (AI), evidently without putting into question the utility of AI. What should regulation of Artificial Intelligence look like? The answer to this question depends on the goals of the regulator. As was previously outlined in Part I, much of the goals of states today is to focus on incentivizing innovative applications of AI or encouraging breakthrough AI research. We could imagine, however, that the average regulator might also consider such goals as avoiding the risk that AI research or technology leads to the eradication of humankind and reducing other major risks for human beings to the extent that the expected positive effect of AI is not disproportionately hampered. Furthermore, regulators might feel compelled to deal with particular risks linked to specific technological uses. Continue reading Report on Artificial Intelligence: Part II – outline of future regulation of AI

Tobacco control regulations: Combating the world’s leading preventable cause of death

Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death in the world today and accounts for around 12% of all adult deaths worldwide (more than 7 million people)1. Its effects are far-reaching and have implications along the supply chain: from the land used to grow tobacco instead of food, often in countries where food security is a concern, to the 63% of children of tobacco-growing families involved in child labor, to the environmental effects of smoke expelled into the air, the bystander and the smoker’s health2. This howtoregulate article focuses on tobacco control and regulations for the emerging tobacco alternative electronic cigarettes. Continue reading Tobacco control regulations: Combating the world’s leading preventable cause of death

Regulating End of Life Choices: autonomy versus protection of the vulnerable

If there is a right to life, is there a right to not choose life? Many jurisdictions have regulations that enable patients to choose life-prolonging, life-shortening, or life-ending (for example do not resuscitate directives or removal of artificial feeding tubes) medical treatments at a certain end of life situations/choices. However, very few jurisdictions enable their citizens the choice to end their lives. Several countries are currently debating whether or not to enable their citizens to end their lives with the assistance of the state, and New Zealand is the most advanced in this process with its End of Life Choice Bill. This howtoregulate article examines the regulations of those jurisdictions that have developed end of life choices regulations on the basis of its complexity and the level of autonomy and protection afforded to those considering to end their life. Continue reading Regulating End of Life Choices: autonomy versus protection of the vulnerable

Feathers, Fur, Fins and Fronds: Regulations Against the Illegal Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora

Paradoxically, the strengthening international and national regulatory regime against illegal wildlife and forest trade[i] (shortened to illegal wildlife trade in this article) has also seen the increasing demand and market for such trade. Elephant numbers have been reducing since 2010 with between 20,000 and 30,000 African elephants killed each year[ii]. The Elephant Trade Information System reports that 45 tonnes of ivory was seized each year between 2010 and 2015[iii]. The price per kilogram of rhino horn is more than the street value of cocaine and gold (approximately €60,000 per kilogram)[iv]. Illegal wildlife trade is an asymmetric problem that has fueled conflict, corruption and money laundering. This howtoregulate article examines the regulatory techniques used by jurisdictions around the world to regulate against the illegal wildlife trade, focusing on those that present useful enforcement techniques. Continue reading Feathers, Fur, Fins and Fronds: Regulations Against the Illegal Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora

Cybersecurity: Regulating the Virtual World

Smart grids, electronic commerce, digital government, and health services are but a few of the many possibilities offered by the advancement of technology and expansion of cyberspace. We could only agree with the Indonesian legislator that activities in cyberspace are virtual activities that have actual impacts on our lives. Cybersecurity breaches cover – among others – denial of services, physical theft, crime ware, cyberespionage, and web application attacks. Continue reading Cybersecurity: Regulating the Virtual World