Directory of reference regulation, 1st edition, Part 11: internet, information, communication

Regulatory issues are often similar from one sector to the next and from one jurisdiction to the next. Accordingly, regulators might find it helpful to study international or national model laws and regulation of other jurisdictions.

Our directory presents internationally elaborated model regulation, but also national model regulation or high quality national regulation. Quality criteria applied include:

– Completeness (coverage of many relevant aspects);

– Correct and understandable structure;

– Limited or justified complexity (exclusion of regulation which is over-complex);

– Coherent level of depth (exclusion of regulation which is imbalanced in terms of depth);

– Relevance for other jurisdictions (exclusion of very country specific regulation).

To the extent possible, we present reference regulation of different types, with different degrees of detail, complexity and depth. However, as we are not technical experts for the many sectors presented, we make no judgment on the technical appropriateness of substantial criteria and the procedures foreseen in the regulation.

The list is currently still under construction. Some regulation will be dropped in the next edition and some other will be added. We intend including more regulatory sectors and referring to even better national reference regulation. Furthermore, we will try to remedy the current over-representation of certain jurisdictions and we will replace old regulations by new regulations.

Though we skipped regulations of our domestic jurisdictions to avoid any bias, the selection is admittedly to some extent arbitrary and subject to coincidences such as accessibility on the internet and search engine logarithms. Furthermore, we limited our selection for the time being to regulation available in English. Despite these limitations, the presentation of reference regulation here might still be regarded as useful by regulators.

The reference regulation presented in this directory can well:

– serve as a drafting model;

– help to complement drafts; and even

inspire to regulate in a sector that the respective regulators had not yet identified as worthwhile being regulated.

If you wish to recommend regulation as reference regulation for this directory, if you have detected mistakes of if you have ideas on how to further develop this project, please contact us. We are welcoming any ideas, even if they imply the handing-over of this project to other natural or legal persons.

If you wish to search for other reference regulation, you might use the following websites:


Access to information

INT 1 and INT 2


South Africa


Data protection / Privacy

INT Privacy and data protection

INT Interception of communications





New Zealand


Telecommunication acts

INT Universal access to telecommunication services

INT Licensing of telecommunication services

INT Interconnection of telecommunication services 

New Zealand

Telecommunication business



South Africa

Information society and telecommunication



Cybercrimes and cybersecurity


Japan (unauthorised access)

New Zealand

Canada (reporting on child internet pornography)

Electronic payments


Electronic communications and transactions


New Zealand


Canada (Ontario)

Canada (Alberta)


Internet name domain disputes




New Zealand

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